Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. Body Mass Index (BMI) is a simple index of weight-for-height that is commonly used to classify overweight and obesity in adults. It is defined as a person’s weight in kilograms divided by the square of his height in meters (kg/m2).
Health risks associated with obesity
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a condition that develops when your blood glucose, commonly known as blood sugar, is too high. Approximately 8 out of 10 patients with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese. High blood glucose levels cause difficulties such as heart disease, stroke, renal disease, vision problems, nerve damage, and other health problems over time.
If you are at risk for type 2 diabetes, decreasing 5 to 7% of your body weight and engaging in regular physical exercise may help you avoid or postpone the beginning of the disease.
High Blood Pressure
High blood pressure, often known as hypertension, is a disorder in which blood rushes more forcefully through your blood vessels than is usual. High blood pressure may cause heart strain, blood vessel damage, and an increased risk of heart attack, stroke, renal illness, and death.
Heart disease is a term used to describe several problems that may affect your heart. You might have a heart attack, heart failure, sudden cardiac death, angina, or an irregular heart rhythm if you have heart disease. Excessive blood pressure, abnormal blood fat levels, and high blood glucose levels may all increase your risk of heart disease. HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides are examples of blood fats, often known as blood lipids.
Losing 5 to 10% of your body weight may reduce your risk factors for heart disease. If you weigh 200 pounds, you might lose up to 10 pounds. Losing weight may lower blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood flow.
A stroke is a condition in which your brain’s blood supply is suddenly cut off due to a blockage or the rupture of a blood vessel in your brain or neck. A stroke can damage brain tissue and make you unable to speak or move parts of your body. Strokes are most often caused by high blood pressure.
Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Sleep apnea is a frequent condition in which you stop breathing while sleeping. You may stop breathing altogether for short periods of time. Untreated sleep apnea might increase your chance of developing additional health issues such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease.
A metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that increases your risk of heart disease, diabetes, and stroke. These are elevated blood pressure and high blood glucose levels.
These are elevated blood pressure and high blood glucose levels. These conditions are
- High blood pressure
- High blood glucose levels
- High triglyceride levels in your blood
- Low levels of HDL cholesterol (the “good” cholesterol) in your blood
- Too much fat around your waist
Fatty liver diseases
Fatty liver disorders occur when fat accumulates in the liver. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis are examples of fatty liver disorders (NASH). Fatty liver illnesses may cause serious liver damage, cirrhosis, and even death.
Osteoarthritis is a common, long-term health issue that causes pain, swelling, and decreased joint mobility. Being overweight or having obesity may raise your risk of getting osteoarthritis by putting extra pressure on your joints and cartilage.
Obesity and being overweight increase your chances of developing gallbladder illnesses such as gallstones and cholecystitis. Imbalances in substances that make up bile cause gallstones. Gallstones may occur when bile includes an excessive amount of cholesterol.
Some of the body’s cells begin to divide uncontrollably and spread into surrounding tissues in all forms of cancer. Obesity and being overweight may increase your chance of acquiring some forms of cancer.
Kidney disease indicates that your kidneys have been damaged and are unable to filter blood as effectively as they should. Obesity increases the risk of diabetes and high blood pressure, which are the two leading causes of kidney damage. Obesity may cause and accelerate the progression of renal disease even if you do not have diabetes or high blood pressure.
Overweight and obesity increase the risk of pregnancy-related health complications.
Pregnant women who are overweight or obese may have a greater chance of
- developing gestational diabetes.
- having preeclampsia—high blood pressure during pregnancy, which can cause severe health problems for mother and baby if left untreated.
- or C-section and, as a result, taking longer to recover after giving birth.
To know more about Obesity watch our video: Obesity awareness talk | Dr. Sagg